Farid OUKACINE,   
On-line capillary electrophoresis derivatization method for high sensitivity analysis of ubiquitin in filtered cerebrospinal fluid  
[Full paper ]
K. Mesbah, F. Oukacine, S. Lehnert, M. Otto, M. Taverna
Electrophoresis 2013, 34, 2733-2739.
Electrophoretically mediated microanalysis was implemented for on-line fluorescence derivatization of ubiquitin (UBI), a potential biomarker of Alzheimer disease. Ubiquitin was labeled on its amino groups by the Fluoprobes (R) 488 N-hydroxysuccinimide. The pH of the BGE, the applied electric field, and the washing process of the capillary were optimized. The best derivatization yield was obtained at pH 9.5 under an electric field of approximate to 210 V/cm. The concentration and volume of the fluorescent dye as well as the sample medium and volume of injected UBI were also optimized. In order to improve further the LOD of UBI, electrophoretically mediated microanalysis was performed in a wider (100 m id) and longer (110 cm) capillary. As expected, these capillary dimensions improved the analytical sensitivity of UBI when compared to the 50 m id capillary. Under the optimized conditions, this analytical methodology allowed the analysis of free UBI in standard solution with a LOD of approximate to 15 nM. Finally, the on-line fluorescent derivatization of UBI was applied to the detection and the quantification of UBI in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Due to the high salt concentration of biological samples, desalting of CSF was required prior to the CE analysis. Quantification of UBI in CSF either by a direct evaluation of peak areas or using the standard addition method was achieved.